Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics

Semantics is the study of the meaning of words, phrases and sentences attempting to focus on what the words conventionally mean, rather than on what an individual speaker (like George Carlin) might want them to mean on a particular occasion.

Pragmatics is the study of what speakers mean, or ‘speaker meaning’, In many ways, pragmatics is the study of ‘invisible’ meaning, or how we recognize what is meant even when it isn’t actually said or written.


  • Conceptual and associative meaning
  • Semantic features
  • Semantic roles
  • Agent and theme
  • Instrument and experiencer
  • Location, source and goal
  • Lexical relations
  • Synonymy
  • Antonymy
  • Hyponymy
  • Prototypes
  • Homophones and homonyms
  • Polysemy
  • Word play
  • Metonymy
  • Collocation


  • Invisible meaning
  • Context
  • Deixis
  • Reference
  • Inference
  • Anaphora
  • Presupposition
  • Speech acts
  • Direct and indirect speech acts
  • Politeness
  • Negative and positive face

For the complete explanation followed by the example in each item, you may download in this link for resume version or visit download page from this site then choose study of language link for book version.

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